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    Ana Sayfa » ABOUT US » Short Historical Review



    1894


    If the industrial development in Eskişehir would have been narrated in a legend, it would probably begin like “....In the beginning, as far as the eye could see, stretched the well-irrigated and fertile plains of Eskişehir” and would follow like this:
    “…. One day,two lines of steel divided this great plain into halves. Than, an iron car, angrily breathing out steam, came and passed by over these steel bars. With time everybody became aware that places far away were not so far anymore with this new iron car; the earth and the sky changed, people changed and they started to do new things…”
    The passing of the İstanbul – Baghdad Railway Line through Eskişehir in 1894 was not a legendary, but it was certainly the cause of great changes in the socio-economic structure of the town and provided the initial impetus for the development of industrialization in the region.
    The first railway transportation started in England in 1825 and spread over in the following 25 years to whole Europe and the introduction of the railways to the Ottoman Empire, which was spread over 3 continents, was rather early when compared with other technological innovations. But, the whole length of the railway line in the vast lands of the Ottomans in 1866 was only 519 km. And, only one third of this line was in Anatolia, the remaining section of 389 km was between Constanza - Danube and Varna – Ruse.
    The Ottoman Government wanted a railway connection between Haydarpaşa and Baghdad and therefore made a request to the European countries to pass the railway line that would connect Europe with India from İstanbul.
    In this connection the Haydarpaşa-İzmit section of the Anatolia-Baghdad Railway Line in the Marmara Sea basin was constructed and put into service at the end of the XIX. century in 1886.
    The construction and managing privilege of the railway line between İzmit and Ankara was given to Anatolia Ottoman Railway Company with an imperial edict dated October 8, 1888.
    The same railway company established with German capital constructed and put into operation the railway lines between Eskişehir and Konya and between Alayunt and Kütahya with another privilege dated 15 February 1893.
    The construction of the railway line from Eskişehir to Konya started on August 31, 1893 and reached Konya on July 29, 1896.
    During the construction works a small maintenance and repair workshop named Anatolia-Ottoman Rail Company was established in Eskişehir in 1894 by the Germans to realize the repair and maintenance of steam locomotives and wagons used in the Anatolia-Baghdad Railway Line. The foundation of today’s TÜLOMSAŞ has been laid down by this way. Small-scale repairs of locomotives, coaches and freight cars have been done in this workshop, the boilers of steam locomotives were sent to Germany for repair and all spare parts were imported from other countries.

    1919


    The Anatolian-Ottoman Rail Company captured by British solders during the military occupation of Anatolia in 1919, was taken back by the Nationalist Forces on March 20, 1920 and that small workshop, which was renamed as Eskişehir Railway Repair Workshop, became an important trump used against the occupying forces by the Nationalist Forces.
    General İsmet Pasha stated once in his memories: “My first fundamental duty was to prepare the army. In this respect breeches of cannons, which had been found in various depots in blank tube shapes with their breech plugs removed were renewed in Eskişehir Railway Repair Workshop and I used these cannons in the Sakarya Battle.”

    The workshop captured by the Greeks on July 20, 1920 has been infinitely taken back on September 2, 1922. This small repair workshop in the new-formed country paved the way for a technology based economy, which was formerly mainly based on agriculture.

    After the National War of Independence Atatürk said: “ The economic war is the main war.” The young Turkish Republic at those times was still dependent on the enemy that he once threw out of the country. All needs of the railways that connect the fields to the markets, mines to the factories, factories to the ports and that form the arteries of the state economy had been met by other countries, primarily Germany, Belgium, Sweden and Czechoslovakia.
    In a country without any industrial substructure, one could not even think of locomotive or wagon manufacture.

     


    1923



    In 1923 the small repair workshop had a closed area of 800 m² and many progresses, new units for producing steam locomotive boilers, gears, a carpenter’s shop, other units producing materials for railway bridges, switches and tracks had been made established between the years 1925 and 1928 in the aim of reducing the dependency to other countries. The annual maintenance and repair capacity of the railway repair shop increased in those years to 3-4 locomotives and 30 passenger and freight cars.
    During the II. World War, many qualified staff in the Eskişehir Repair Workshop were drafted and this caused to a temporary recession. But, this situation has been overcome in a short time.
     
    1940



    1940: TÜLOMSAŞ is training technical staff for the industry….
    The few qualified workers who were not drafted during the mobilization period in the Railway Repair Workshop started a campaign to train new workers to substitute those who joined the army. Boarding Apprentice Training Schools were opened to ensure a continuous training opportunity for many students. Furthermore, the Welding House established in those years at the Railway Repair Workshop became a center for training welders in Turkey. 
     
    1946



    1946: TÜLOMSAŞ is lighting Eskişehir….
    After the Second World War in 1946 the Railway Repair Workshop started to increase its production capacity with the qualified workers who returned back after the mobilization. The power plant established in the same year to meet the increasing need for energy was also used to illuminate some regions of Eskişehir.

    The tooling factory was built in 1947 and later in 1949 plant maintenance, dining hall and managerial office buildings were put into service.

    The Engine Division began to function in 1956.

    The first mechanical weighing bridge production of Turkey had been realized without any license or know-how in this workshop in 1951.


    TÜLOMSAŞ is also active in sports and social activities….

    In addition to their versatile production range each workshop had its own sports club. Soccer, wrestling, skiing were some of the branches of activity of these sports clubs. Clubhouses were opened for workers and officials. Movies had been shown at 2-3 days in a week or meetings in the guesthouse of the Repair Workshop

    1951



    The Engine Section begins with its activities. The production of the first mechanical weighbridge has been realized without any license or know-how in 1951.

    TÜLOMSAŞ starts to enliven the country with its sport and social activities: Along with all those versatile productions each workshop has its own sports club. These clubs have branches like football, wrestling, skiing and marksmanship. Social facilities for officials and workers have been opened in addition to these sports clubs, Movies are shown 2-3 times a week in visitor rooms of the workshop and meetings pertaining to sports and culture are held. This Traction Workshop is now one of the favored institutions of Turkey. But, this is not enough for it. It wants to realize what it is longing for a long time. The expected opportunity comes in the end. A project that will create affection in people for railways is needed for ‘Ankara Youth Park’.

    1957



    Year 1957

    Year 1957, the Youth Park is like a festival place. The two small steam locomotives “Mehmetçik” and “Efe” manufactured completely in Eskişehir Traction Workshop are a pride for both Ankara and Eskişehir. The two small steam locomotives with 35 t load capacity and running with 20km/h speed on a 1750 m² line between the stations ‘Havuzbaşı’ and ‘Esmen’ are carrying on one side the enjoying children and on the other side the pride of Eskişehir Traction Workshop as well as the hope for producing bigger locomotives.

    On April 4, 1957 the prime minister of that time Adnan Menderes who was present at the opening ceremony of Eskişehir (Çukurhisar) Cement Factory visited on April 5 the Traction Workshop of the State Railways and examined all the plant and especially the apprentice school. He made negotiations with the craftsmen and the delegation of labor unions. The prime minister got on one of the locomotives of the miniature trains that were built to operate that year in Ankara Youth Park with aim of attracting people’s attention to trains and railways. He was very pleased with it and said: “Can you build a bigger locomotive if I ask you to do it?”

    1958



    Year 1958

    The first steam locomotive “KARAKURT” (Blackwolf) is on rails.

    In 1958 the Traction Workshop in Eskişehir was reorganized with the aim of realizing new and more comprehensive goals and became the name Eskişehir Railway Factory. The aim was to manufacture the first local steam locomotive and in 1961 the first Turkish steam locomotive “KARAKURT” with 1915 HP, 97 t in weight and 70 km/h speed was manufactured by Turkish workers and engineers. It was the monument of honor of the factory.

    Main Characteristics of the Steam Locomotive “KARAKURT”

    LOCOMOTIVE TYPE
    1 E

    AXLE ARRANGEMENT
    5 axles

    MAXIMUM SPEED
    70 km/h

    RAIL GAUGE
    1435 mm

    TARE WEIGHT
    97 t

    TOTAL WEIGHT
    106,9 t

    DISTANCE BETWEEN BUFFERS
    22900 mm

    WHEEL DIAMETER
    1450 mm

    GUIDE WHEEL DİAMETER
    850 mm

    AXLE LOAD
    19,5 t

    DISTANCE BETWEEN AXLES
    1500 mm

    TRACTION POWER
    18500 kgf

    CYLINDER CAPACITY
    660 mm

    BOILER STEAM PRESSURE
    16 atü

    BOILER POWER
    1915 HP

    BRAKE TYPE
    KNORR steam brake

    TENDER tare / water / fuel
    20 t / 29 t / 11 t

    STARTING DATE OF MANUFACTURE
    1958

    DATE PUT INTO SERVICE
    1960

    YEARS IN SERVICE
    25 years


    1961



    Year 1961

    “DEVRİM”

    THE FIRST TURKISH AUTOMOBILE

    THE FIRST AUTOMOBILE OF TURKEY MANUFACTURED IN 1961 IN OUR COMPANY WITH THE DIRECTIONS OF PRESIDENT CEMAL GÜRSEL

    THE STORY OF DEVRİM

    On June 16, 1961 nearly 20 admistrators and engineers from the factories and traction departments of the State Railways were called to a meeting in Ankara. Vice General Manager Emin BOZOĞLU, the chairman of the meeting read a letter received from the Ministry of Transportation. It was stated in the letter that the task of developing an automobile to meet the need of the army was assigned to TCDD and that a subsidy in the amount of 1.400.000 TL was allocated for this task.

    The due date of the task was October 29, 1961. So, they had only 4.5 months to finish the work. Was it possible to complete such a comprehensive task within this limited period? Forget about developing, was it possible to make an automobile running with nothing at hand? Most of the attendants of the meeting said that they would willingly work in this project, but mentioned that they don’t think such a work can be finished within that time. And some of the attendants said that it was impossible.

    During that period many well-known people from the universities and the press in Turkey, as well as businessmen and politicians indicated in their speeches, interviews or conferences that neither an automobile nor an engine could be build in Turkey.

    But, the miracle could be realized and in the morning of October 29, 1961 an automobile with not such a smooth hood, but with a local built engine was brought in front of the Great National Assembly building and was presented to President Cemal Gürsel Pasha. A second one brought the Pasha first to the mausoleum of Atatürk and then to the military parade in the hippodrome. How could this be realized?

    There were two reasons why this project was given to TCDD and not to another organization. One of the reasons was that TCDD with its factories in Ankara, Eskişehir, Sivas and Adapazarı established in those years mainly for repairs, but producing also many kind of spare parts, had an important technical potential and a strong technical staff with qualified workers and engineers. The other reason was that Vice General Manager of TCDD, Dipl.-Ing. Emin BOZOĞLU had a military background and was well known by the Committee of National Unity and most members of council because of his relationship with Sıtkı ULAY Pasha.

    Dipl.-İng. Emin BOZOĞLU was the chairman of the administrative team and he together with the other members of the team played an important role in the management and realization of the project.

    During this period the assigned engineers worked minimum 12 hours a day, including Saturdays and Sundays or even slept for a couple of hours in the workshop on a shelter in order to finish the work on time.

    In the meeting held on June 16, 1961 it was agreed that a factory building that was formerly built as a foundry, but not used at that time in Eskişehir Railway Factory (now TÜLOMSAŞ) would be the most suitable place for the project. It was also agreed that different type of automobile structures should be investigated to decide on the type and dimension of the best suitable one and to have an idea of how to design and manufacture the engine and transmission unit, as well as other components of the automobile.

    The factory in Eskişehir was instructed to prepare the workshop under consideration for the studies and it was required from those who had a car to be in Eskişehir on June 19. The floor of the workshop was covered with sheets that were supplied for the boilers of steam locomotives. A plate indicating in big numbers how many days were left to finish the project was hung onto the door of the workshop. Each day they wrote the remaining days on this plate, which stood there up to the end. An overhead traveling crane, various stands and a meeting table was provided in the workshop. This table near a small kitchen for tea was used during those four months for meetings, as well as for resting and working when necessary.

    The “Managerial Group” of the project was declared in the first meeting held in the workshop. This group under the chairmanship of Vice General Manager Emin BOZOĞLU consisted of the following members: TCDD Factories Dept. Manager Orhan ALP, Traction Dept. Manager Hakkı TOMSU, Traction Dept. Asst. Manager Nurettin ERGUVANLI, Manager of Eskişehir Railway Factory Mustafa ERSOY, Manager of Adapazarı Railway Factory Celal TANER, Manager of Ankara Railway Factory Mehmet NÖKER and two retired military officers Hüsnü KAYAOĞLU (Consultant, TCDD General Management) and Necati PEKÖZ. Then they decided on the working groups. The working groups were as follows:

    design
    engine-transmission
    hood
    suspension-brake
    electrical arrangement
    cast works
    supply issues
    finance
    First, the outlines of the projected automobile were determined. They agreed on a moderate size of automobile for 4-5 passengers with a total weight of 1000-1100 kg and a four-stroke engine with 4 cylinders and 50-60 HP.

    One of the vehicle body models in 1:10 scale was selected to prepare a gypsum model in 1:1 scale. The roof section and hood sheets were produced one by one on concrete blocks prepared according to this gypsum model. In the meanwhile, after examining the engines of automobile models like Willy’s Jeep, Warswa, Chevrolet, Ford Consul, Fiat 1400 and 1100, it was decided on a L-head, four cylinder engine similar to the engine of Warswa. The housing and head of the engine were cast in Sivas Railway Factory and machined in Ankara Railway Factory. Piston, ring and riggings were produced in Eskişehir Railway Factory. The assembly of the engine was performed in Ankara Railway Factory. An alternative type of engine with the same housing and crankshaft was developed in Ankara Railway Factory because the power obtained during braking was not more than 40 HP. The third engine that was an overhead valve engine called B-engine was constructed in Eskişehir Railway Factory.

    The team responsible for suspension suggested the “Mc Pearson” system and the suspension system was produced in Eskişehir according to a sample.

    At the end of September the front and rear windows were slightly modified to match with those in the market, two car bodies were constructed and two separate engines in A and B types were ready. The transmissions were produced locally in Ankara Railway Factory.

    The adaptation of engine in the car body, installation of clutch, gas and brake control mechanism and the position of the steering wheel were the most important problems that arouse during assembly. The suggestion of an adjustable steering wheel was refused, but two years later Cadillac introduced this as an innovation.

    Finally, mid October the first automobile of the Devrim series was ready for testing. All parts of the automobiles, except electrical components, differential gears, cardan spiders, engine bearings, windows and wheels, were produced locally.

    During the test stage of the first car, they worked hard to get the second car equipped with the B-type engine ready in time for presenting it to the president. The final paint coat of the second Devrim car could be applied in the evening of October 28. Polishing works were done at that night in the train while traveling to Ankara. The fuel tanks of the cars were emptied for safety reasons to prevent any danger that might be caused by the sparks from the chimney of the steam locomotive.

    The train arrived at Ankara in the morning hours. The two Devrim automobiles were brought to Ankara Railway Factory, which was in Sıhhiye district of the city at that time. The fuel tanks of the cars had been filled only with a small amount of gasoline to perform some manouevres. It was planned to fill the fuel tanks of the cars in the filling station in Sıhhiye and then drive to the Great National Assembly.

    In the morning of October 29 the two Devrim automobiles set off to the Great National Assembly escorted by many motorcycled security guards. However, since nobody in the escort was informed that the cars had to be filled, they drove directly to the Assembly. There they recognized that the fuel tanks were empty. The fuel tank of the first car was filled in a hurry. But, when they were just about to fill the second car, President Cemal Pasha arrived at the Great National Assembly and got in the second car to drive to the mausoleum. They set off. But, after nearly 100 m the engine stopped. Cemal Pasha asked: “What is going on?” Dipl. Ing. Rıfat SERDAROĞLU in the driver’s seat said: “Sorry Pasha, we are out of fuel.” Cemal Pasha was asked to change to the first car. He agreed and drove to the mausoleum in the first car. When he got out of the car, he said:” You built the car in a Western manner, but forgot to fill the tank in the Eastern manner.”

    The headings of many articles in the press the next day were all the same “Failure in 100 m”.

    Nobody mentioned about that the Devrim Automobile Nr. 2 that was in the parade at the hippodrome. In many articles, comments and anecdotes of the press it was indicated that the money allocated for this project was wasted. However, nobody mentioned anything about the 25 million TL allocated the same year for ‘the improvement of horse race’.

    Collected from the writings of Dipl.-Ing. Salih Kaya SAĞIN from the Car Body Group.

    Note: Only one of the four DEVRIM cars manufactured in 1961 is still present. The DEVRIM Automobile is protected in a glass garage in the garden of TÜLOMSAŞ museum today and is still functioning.

    TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIRST TURKISH AUTOMOBILE

    “DEVRİM”

    AUTOMOBILE WEIGHT

    1250 kg

    ENGINE TYPE

    A4L

    ENGINE SPEED

    3600 rpm

    NUMBER OF CYLINDERS

    4

    CYLINDER DIAMETER

    81 mm

    POWER

    50 HP

    CHARACTERISTICS of ENGINE

    4-stroke, water-cooled, L-head, forced lubricated

    PRODUCTION TIME

    4.5 months

    YEAR OF PRODUCTION

    1961

    PLACE OF MANUFACTURE

    ESKİŞEHİR RAILWAY FACTORY

    NUMBER OF PRODUCTIONS

    4



    1968



    Serial production of DH 3600 type diesel shunting locomotives with 360 HP started in 1968 under license of German MAK Company and 25 units were produced up to 1975.

    Production of 16 PA4 V-185 type diesel engines started in 1968 under license of French Semt Pielstick Company. ,

    From a factory into an organization

    In 1970 the Eskişehir Railway Factory became the name “Eskişehir Locomotive and Engine Industry” (ELMS).

    1971



    The first Diesel Electric Mainline with 2400 HP, 111 t weight and 39400 kg traction force was put into service with a ceremony in 1971. The locomotive was manufactured under license agreements with French Traction Export Company for locomotive and with Chantiers de L’Atlantique Company for engine.

    This Locomotive and Engine Industry of Eskişehir was such a big factory that iron and sheet plates coming to the factory on trucks or wagons leave the factory in one week as a component of a locomotive.

    431 units of DE 24000 type Diesel Electric Locomotives have been produced up to 1985.


    1986




    From an organization into a corporation

    In line with the changing conditions prevailing in Turkey and the world “ELMS” was reorganized in 1986 as a corporate body by legislation and became “The Turkish Locomotive and Engine Industry, Inc.”


    In 1986, the first DE 11000 type mainline & shunting locomotive with 1100 HP was manufactured under license agreement with German Krauss-Maffei Company for locomotive and with MTU Company for diesel engine. 70 units of the DE11000 type locomotives were produced up to 1990.


    1987
     

    In 1987, the first DE 22000 type mainline locomotive with 2200 HP was manufactured under license agreement for DE Mainline Locomotives with American EMD General Motors Company. 39 units of the DE 22000 type mainline locomotive were imported by TCDD and 48 units were manufactured in TÜLOMSAŞ.


    The production of various railway work machines (snow-plow, railway mobile cranes, track maintenance cars with light crane, catenary maintenance cars) started in 1987. 46 units of machines were produced in TÜLOMSAŞ.


    1988

    In 1988 TÜLOMSAŞ started with the production of the E 43000 type electric mainline locomotive with 4300 HP under license agreement with Japan NISSHO IWAI-TOSHIBA Company. 44 units were manufactured in TÜLOMSAŞ after importing one complete locomotive from Japan.

    1994


    TÜLOMSAŞ designed and manufactured in 1994 a diesel hydraulic shunting locomotive of DH 7000 type with 709 HP. 20 locomotives of this type were manufactured.

    1998



    In 1998 TÜLOMSAŞ started with the design studies of a DH 9500 type diesel hydraulic mainline and shunting locomotive with 950 HP. TÜLOMSAŞ manufactured 26 locomotives of this type

    2001



     
    TÜLOMSAŞ manufactured between 2001-2003 14 units of DH 10000 type diesel hydraulic mainline and shunting locomotives with 1000 HP.

    2003




    In 2003 TÜLOMSAŞ made an agreement for technology transfer with General Motors/USA and manufactured the first 6 units of DE 33000 type diesel electric mainline locomotives to meet the need of Turkish State Railways for 89 mainline locomotives. 42 units of the remaining 89 locomotives were built until 2006. The remaining 47 locomotives will be manufactured with 51% local content. .





     




     

     



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